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Rift Valley Institute

Making local knowledge work

MA’AWISLEY: A DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD IN THE FIGHT AGAINST AL-SHABAAB

Introduction One of the most significant recent developments in the prolonged struggle against al-Shabaab in Somalia has been the success of military operations led by the Somali National Armed Forces and allied self-defence militias known as Ma’awisley. Ma’awisley—named after the colourful sarong many members wear—were provoked into action by various grievances towards al-Shabaab, including high taxation, […]

ENABLING WOMEN’S REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION IN POLITICAL DIALOGUES IN SOMALIA

SUMMARY  Somalia grapples with unique cultural, societal, and structural hurdles that hinder women’s access to political processes. Despite introducing a non-legally binding quota, the most recent federal elections in 2022 saw a decline in women’s parliamentary representation. Beyond this, women’s leadership in public spaces remains inadequate at all levels. Patriarchal norms, gender stereotypes, and cultural […]

EXPANDING PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN POLITICAL PROCESSES IN SOMALIA

Summary In recent history, political processes in Somalia have been dominated by a narrow set of political and business elites, armed actors and external players. Following the collapse of the government in 1991, there were a series of conferences in the 1990s that engaged primarily with political elites and armed actors. All of these conferences […]

HESHIISKA SIYAASADEED EE DOWLAD-GOBOLEEDKA GALMUDUG

Hordhac  Galmudug ayaa ilaa iyo dhawaanahan loo arkayay dowlad-goboleed ay colaado iyo kala qeybsanaan badani ka jiraan, oo ay qaabeeyeen colaadihii laga dhaxlay dagaalladii sokeeye ee Soomaaliya. Khilaafyada joogtada ah ee beelaha ku saleysanaa ee u dhexeeyay kooxaha siyaasadeed awgood, waxaa lagu sifeeyay in aysan ka jirin awood siyaasadeed oo mideysan. Xitaa iyadoo gobollada kale […]

UNDERSTANDING POLITICAL SETTLEMENT DYNAMICS IN GALMUDUG STATE

Introduction Galmudug state in Somalia was, until recently, seen as a region of conflict and fragmentation, shaped by the legacy of violence passed down from the Somali civil war. Due to the constant conflict between clan-based political groupings, it has been characterized as lacking any unified political authority. Even as other parts of Somalia established […]

PUNTLAND’S LOCAL GOVERNMENT ELECTIONS: IMPLICATIONS AND PROSPECTS FOR PUNTLAND’S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ELECTIONS The phased process of conducting local government elections (LGEs) in Puntland has now commenced, building on the agreements made between various political actors— mainly the political associations, Puntland state and the Transitional Puntland Electoral Commission (TPEC). The initial phase involved voter registration, which was first concluded in Bari, Karkaar and Gardafui, with […]

DOORKA UU 4.5 KU LEEYAHAY DIMUQRAADIYEYNTA IYO DOWLADNIMADA SOOMAALIYA

Dulmar Inkastoo ay isbeddello waaweyn ka dheceen saaxadda siyaasadda Soomaaliya labaatankii sano ee lasoo dhaafay, arrin aan is beddelin ayaa ah ku tiirsanaanta nidaamka awood-qeybsiga beelaha, oo ay kamid tahay ‘4.5’. Inkastoo Dastuurka Kumeelgaarka ee Soomaaliya uusan dhigeyn wax tixraac ah oo la xiriira nidaamkan, haddana waxa uu hannaanka 4.5 go’aamiyaa saami qeybsiga beelaha ee […]

THE ROLE OF 4.5 IN DEMOCRATIZATION AND GOVERNANCE IN SOMALIA

Overview Amid the major changes to Somalia’s political landscape seen over the past two decades, an abiding feature has been the reliance on clan-based power-sharing models, including the ‘4.5’ formula. Despite the Somali Provisional Constitution containing no reference to the formula, it continues to determine the allocation of seats to clans in the Federal Parliament’s […]