Historically, Gulu is a place of mixed opportunities. In the 1980s and 1990s, Gulu hosted many internally displaced persons (IDPs) fleeing the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) conflict in northern Uganda. When the conflict came to an end in 2006, the municipality quickly became a migrant destination because of the security it provided and the economic opportunities available in the post-conflict…


This study looks at rural–urban mobility in Eldoret, a fast-growing secondary city of about 300,000 people located in Kenya’s Rift Valley. The city is perceived as a dynamic urban centre attracting many newcomers due to its business opportunities, strategic location and renowned health and educational institutions.


An analytical account of the growth of "people-to-people" peace meetings in Sudan and its borderlands, with a comprehensive bibliography and time-chart of peace meetings over two decades in Southern and Northern Sudan (including Darfur and the transitional zone between North and South). Full-text versions of reports cited in the bibliography have been incorporated into the Sudan Open Archive…


This Usalama report by Jason Stearns et al. examines the Banyamulenge, a Tutsi community in the Eastern DRC that has been stuck in a cycle of insurgency and exclusion for over 20 years. While the last major Banyamulenge insurgency came to an end in 2011, armed groups and foreign involvement remain a threat to the area's communities.


A comparative study of three regional peace agreements: the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan, Somalia's Mbgathi peace process, from 2002 - 2004, and the 2000 Ethiopia-Eritrea Algiers Agreement. It examines the background and the historical context of the conflicts that these peace agreements were intended to resolve and in assessing their development provides broad conclusions for…


This report assesses obstacles and risks to the implementation of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement and outlines steps to be taken to avoid a return to conflict. The product of a seminar held by the Horn of Africa Group, this paper brings together perspectives from officials, opinion leaders, academic specialists and foreign policy-makers. Copublished by the RVI with Chatham House (the…


A guide to Sudan's electoral system – one of the most complex in the world – and its effects on the distribution of power. The report analyses government documents to reveal errors and ambiguities in the demarcation of electoral districts, and warns of the challenge these pose to the conduct of elections in April 2010.


A policy paper on Sudan's political future analysing the critical events facing the country in the run up to the April 2010 elections and the 2011 referendum on self-determination for Southern Sudan. Copublished by RVI with Chatham House (the Royal Institute of International Affairs) and the International Rescue Committee.


Abyei has proved to be the hardest part of Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) to implement, harder, even, than the determination of the rest of the North-South boundary, or the division of oil revenues. In this personal commentary Douglas Johnson argues that this is the result of a long-term aim of annexation by successive national governments in Khartoum. The recent interventions of…


The continuing violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) can be bewildering in its complexity: in the profusion of armed factions, the plethora of acronyms, and the multitude of grievances that trigger outbreaks of conflict—be they political, financial, or ethnic; local, national, or cross-border.