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2022-09-02

Tobankii sano ee la soo dhaafay, horumarro la taaban karo ayaa laga sameeyay xaaladda siyaasadda Soomaaliya, oo ay kamid tahay dhismihii Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya ee sanadkii 2012 kadib markii la ansixiyay Dastuurka Federaalka Kumeelgaarka ah. Dowladaha xubnaha ka ah dowladda federaalka ayaa la dhisay wixii ka dambeeyay sanadkii 2013 waxaana xigay dib-u-habeyno kala duwan oo muhiim ah oo…

2022-09-19

Urban workers and students led Sudan’s 2019 revolution, which forced the security forces of former president Omar al-Bashir to depose their patron in April 2019. The protestors were backed by trade unions, civil activists, technocrats with PhDs, old political parties, and business leaders, all grouped around the Forces of Freedom and Change – an opposition coalition formed in January 2019, as…

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2022-09-14

The unresolved status of Mogadishu is one of the key outstanding issues in Somalia’s political settlement. Since 2012, Somalia has made progress in clarifying its federal model through the establishment of Federal Member States (FMS) and efforts – albeit with limited success – to clarify relationships between different levels of government. The status of Mogadishu, Somalia’s capital since 1960…

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2022-09-12

Somalia first formally adopted a federal model in 2004 with the establishment of the Transitional Federal Charter. Since then, it has been deepened and clarified with the adoption of the Provisional Federal Constitution in 2012 and the subsequent formation of the country’s Federal Member States (FMS). This process has provided the basis for cooperation and co-existence, albeit limited, among…

2022-09-09

Somalia formally adopted a federal system in 2004 with the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government. This model became more established in 2012 with the ratification of the Provisional Federal Constitution (PFC), which clarified many critical areas of Somalia’s governance dispensation. In principle, the introduction of federalism was intended to dis-incentivize conflict, as it was…

2022-09-08

Tan iyo burburkii xukunkii Siyaad Barre sanadkii 1991, culumaa’udiinka iyo ururrada waxay saameyn weyn ku yeesheen siyaasadda Soomaaliya, mararka qaarna waxay qaateen doorkii hay’adaha waaweyn ee bini’aadamnimada.Lagasoo bilaabo 2009 ilaa 2012, hoggaamiye diimeed – Shariif Sheekh Axmed – ayaa ahaa Madaxweyne.

Isbeddelladan mar walba si fiican looma fahmin, afar sababood oo waaweyn…

2022-09-05

Over the past decade, there have been several important gains made with Somalia’s state-building process, notably the establishment of a Federal Government following the endorsement of the Provisional Constitution in 2012. This was followed by the formation of Federal Member States (FMS) from 2013 onwards, as well as a range of significant institutional reforms. Key weaknesses remain, however…

2022-09-02

Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in Somalia’s post-conflict trajectory, including the formation of the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) in 2012 following the endorsement of the Provisional Federal Constitution. Federal Member States (FMSs) were formed from 2013 onwards and a range of significant institutional reforms have followed. However, there are several key…

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2022-06-15

This XCEPT briefing considers the changing political situation in Sudan with a particular focus on the future of the Juba Peace Agreement (JPA) and the evolving political and security dynamics in the east of the country.

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2022-06-08

This policy brief seeks to analyse the progress and challenges of Puntland’s democratisation process and, in so doing, help Somali and international stakeholders maintain momentum towards credible and peaceful elections.