In 1977, following allegations of poor leadership and disloyalty towards the Mobutist regime, the then mwami,
Simba Nyamugira Henri, laid down his administrative functions, which were taken over by his eldest son, Ndare Simba. However, Ndare was not customarily designated by the banjoga
(the Fuliiru ‘guardians of custom’) because a new chief cannot be enthroned when his predecessor is still alive. In this respect, it is important to note that in the Congo, chiefs have a dual function, recognized by law: they hold both a customary and an administrative position. Hence, at least formally, their authority does not run parallel to the state but has been made an integral part of it.